Determining current and future workforce gaps is essential to ensure organizations meet strategic goals, customer expectations, and maintain operational effectiveness. Identifying staffing and competency gaps requires you to develop a profile of the current workforce, determine current and future workforce needs, and project what the workforce profile will be in the future after considering anticipated impacts.
This phase provides the data-driven basis for the workforce plan using systematic analysis to reveal the organization's workforce gaps.
A comprehensive analysis of the organization's staffing and competency gaps and an ordered list of the organization's classifications by risk level.
Perform a workforce supply analysis to understand your organization's current workforce, in terms of the right number of people with the right skills, and be able to project what your future workforce will look like. When developing your current workforce profile, include both staffing (number of employees and demographics) and competencies (knowledge, skills and behaviors).
Gather and analyze at least three years workforce data. Data can be gathered through your organization's access to a Management Information Retrieval System (MIRS) or other human resource management system via your personnel office.
Assess competency levels of the current workforce using an assessment process, such as a readiness assessment or a 360 degree assessment. If competencies have not been developed, you can start by adopting CalHR's Core and Leadership Competency Models, then proceeding to develop competencies at various levels (organizational, occupational, job specific).
Project what your future workforce will look like based on trends by evaluating and forecasting the impact of separations and demographics by classification.
Compare your workforce profile to Statewide Civil Service Demographic Statistical Reports and Workforce Planning Statistics
to gain perspective on statewide trends.
Use the results from the environmental factors analysis performed in Phase 1 to illustrate current needs, the impact of not meeting those needs, and begin projecting future needs of the organization.
Enhance your understanding of current and future organizational needs by conducting an environmental scan to factor input from division/program area leaders about their critical positions and whether their needs will increase or decrease for these positions over time.
Identify the workforce supply (staffing and competencies) needed to meet current and future demands.
Perform a gap analysis to identify the number of employees and competencies needed now and in the future by comparing your current and future workforce supply (staffing and competencies) to the current and future demands of your organization.
Develop a list of classifications by risk level to help you prioritize strategy development in Phase 3. Leadership classifications in high-risk categories are strong candidates for succession management.
Workforce Plan Template DOCX | Blank Template DOCX, see Pages 2-5 and Appendices A and B
Classification Risk Assessment Flowchart PDF | RTF
Competencies - The knowledge, skills, and behaviors employees must possess to successfully perform their work functions. They are observable, and can be developed and measured.
Metric - Measures of quantitative assessment used for assessing, comparing, and tracking performance.
Gap Analysis - As it pertains to workforce planning, it is the comparison of the current and future workforce supply (staffing and competencies) and current and future workforce demands (staffing and competencies).
Trend Analysis - The practice of collecting information and attempting to determine a pattern.
High-risk Position - A key critical position occupied by an incumbent with one or more risk factors, including but not limited to: potential for retirement or other turnover, lack of knowledge transfer taking place, or position is difficult to recruit for.
Your organization's personnel office will have access to the employee data needed for workforce planning. They may have access to reports through the Management Information Retrieval System (MIRS) or can request reports from the State Controller's Office which will contain the information needed. The MIRS Data Acquisition Flowchart PDF | RTF can assist with gathering MIRS data. At minimum, request the following data:
Refer to the MIRS Fields and Definitions PDF | RTF for a full list of data fields to request.
The workforce analysis should include the following for each classification:
If this is your organization's first attempt at conducting a workforce analysis, consider utilizing the CalHR Workforce Data Workbook Template XLSX and CalHR Workforce Data Workbook Instructions PDF | RTF. The template and instructions can be used to produce reports for analysis such as: Retirement Eligibility, Separation Snapshot, Turnover, Generational Breakout, and Demographics.
Note: The CalHR Workforce Data Workbook Template and CalHR Workforce Data Workbook Instructions were created based on Microsoft Excel 2016 capabilities. Other versions of Microsoft Excel may impact the use of both tools.
The levels of competencies can be categorized as follows:
If the various levels of competencies are not in alignment with each other, conducting the workforce planning gap analysis will point out these inconsistencies.
While the statewide foundational competencies have already been established, you will want to identify a set or model of organizational competencies that describe the ideal workforce to carry out the organization's mission and vision. In addition, establishing a set or model of occupational and/or job specific competencies provides management and employees a common understanding of the skills and behaviors that are important to achieving the day-to-day business. Therefore, competency models act as a skill profile and play a key role in decisions on recruiting, employee development, and succession management. When developing and/or identifying competencies reference existing competency models, job specifications sheets, and duty statements to determine the behaviors needed to effectively perform the job. When developing competency sets or models consider the following:
If you are not developing organizational, occupational, and/or job specific competencies, use the CalHR Core Competency Model, then interview or survey division/program area management to record any additional critical knowledge, skills and behaviors that the workforce requires now and in the future. For an organization that is unable to immediately develop competencies, CalHR recommends adding this task as a future workforce planning initiative.
Managers and employees
should assess current competencies and define what levels will be required for each job function. Employees should assess their own competency levels, which will be compared to their manager’s assessment of competencies within each classification group or level. Managers will not assess the competencies of each individual employee, but rather seek skill gaps within all like-classifications in aggregate.
Consider the following to determine how you will assess competencies of your current employees:
Analyze trends within each metric that has been gathered to create your organization's workforce profile. Understanding the patterns of the past can help forecast future changes. It can also help predict the supply of skills that may be available in the future. Trend data can be useful in determining hiring patterns (time required to fill vacancies, average number of vacancies in a year, etc.), retirement patterns, and turnover statistics.
It may be helpful to break down trend analysis by divisions/program areas or by occupational groups. Trend information combined with the current workforce profile is an essential building block for forecasting workforce supply.
To determine the impact of separations on each classification, perform a Trend Analysis (TA) of the three major separation types: retirements, transfers to a different state organization, and voluntary separations from state service.
For detailed information about calculating the TA and other workforce analytics refer to
the CalHR Workforce Data Analysis Methodology PDF | RTF.
The TA calculation is used to identify classifications that, on average, experience a relatively greater impact due to separations. A relatively high TA is a signal that a high amount of separations can be expected from the classification and should alert you to look more closely at the particular separation type(s) that are common in the classification in order to develop strategies that can address the risks posed by the separation(s).
Compare your organization's workforce profile to Statewide Civil Service Demographic Statistical Reports and Workforce Planning Statistics in order to identify if your organization falls above or below statewide trends. Understanding this comparison may help your organization identify areas of risk. You may choose to utilize multiple comparisons for well-rounded benchmarks or establishing interim goals, such as:
Using workforce data analysis, division/program area input by way of the Survey and Development Tool PDF | RTF | online version, and project team/Steering Committee PDF | RTF feedback, determine the variables that could impact your current and future workforce, such as:
A gap analysis determines the gap between your workforce supply and demand.
The result reveals any gaps and excess in staffing levels and competencies needed to perform your organization's functions. For example, you might find:
Once you measure the extent of any gaps for each classification and competency model , identify where candidates will come from to fill those gaps. Consider the following questions:
Use the answers to the questions above as well as the questions below to analyze the gaps between work functions and workforce:
These questions will help guide strategy development in Phase 3. Prioritize larger workforce gaps when developing strategies.
The risk level of a classification is based on results from completing a workforce data analysis and input from divisions/program areas. Factors that impact the risk level of a classification include:
The classification risk levels will help you focus your workforce strategies and limited resources toward your higher risks.
Refer to the
Classification Risk Assessment Flowchart PDF | RTF for more information about determining risk level.